Figuring Out What They Expected

This week I read a post of Joel Spolsky, the CEO of Stack Overflow. This post talks about the term “user model”, “program model”, and making program model conform user model in a program. User model is users’ mental understanding of what the program is doing for them. When a new user starts using a program, they do not come with a completely clean slate. They have some expectations of how the program is going to work. If they’ve used similar software before, they will think it’s going to work like that other software. If they’ve used any software before, they are going to think that your software conforms to certain common conventions. They may have intelligent guesses about how the UI is going to work. Similarly, program model that is a program’s “mental model” is encoded in bits and will be executed faithfully by the CPU. If the program model corresponds to the user model, you have a successful user interface.

For example, in Microsoft Word (and most word processors), when you put a picture in your document, the picture is actually embedded in the same file as the document itself. After inserting the picture in the document, you can delete the original picture file while the picture will remain in the document. On the contrary, HTML doesn’t let you do this, HTML documents must store their pictures in a separate file. If you take a user who is used to word processors, and doesn’t know anything about HTML, and sit them down in front of a HTML editor like FrontPage, they will almost certainly think that the picture is going to be stored in the file. This is a user model. Therefore, program user (the picture must be in a separate file) does not conform user model (the picture will be embedded)

If you’re designing a program like FrontPage, you have to create something to bring the program model in line with the user model. You have two choices: changing user model or program model. It looks remarkably hard to change the user model. You could explain things in the manual or pop up a little dialog box explaining that the image file won’t be embedded. However, they are inefficient because of annoying and users not reading them. So, the best choice is almost always going to be to change the program model, not the user model. Perhaps when they insert the picture, you could make a copy of the picture in a subdirectory beneath the document file.

You can find user model in certain circumstances by asking some users what they think is happening after you describe the situation. Then, you figure out what they expect. The popular choice is the best user model, and it’s up to you to make the program model match it. Actually, you do not have to test on too many users or have a formal usability lab. In some cases, only five or six users next to you are enough because after that, you start seeing the same results again and again, and any additional users are just a waste of time. User models aren’t very complex. When people have to guess how a program is going to work, they tend to guess simple things, rather than complicated things.

It’s hard enough to make the program model conform to the user model when the models are simple. When the models become complex, it’s even getting harder. So, you should pick the simplest possible model.



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